Book Review: “Creating the Qur’an: A Historical-Critical Study”

8 February 2024

1.7 MINS

In Creating the Qur’an, Shoemaker, professor of religious studies and Christian studies at the University of Oregon, offers a closely argued account of how the Qur’an came into existence. It is a tour de force.

Railing against the “shackling” of many contemporary scholars to the traditional Islamic origin story of the Qur’an and drawing new insights from a wide variety of disciplines, including religious studies, linguistics, and anthropology, Shoemaker concludes that the text of the Qur’an only became fixed during the rule of Abd al-Malik some seventy years after the death of Muhammad. “The Qur’an,” he concludes, “was in many respects non-existent before the end of the seventh century.”

Rejecting the commonly held view that the Qur’an’s text was standardised much earlier, by order of Caliph Uthman, Shoemaker concludes, based on Islam’s “chaotic tangle of inconsistent traditions,” that this account is not credible.

Inadequate RootsCreating the Quran

Shoemaker reviews the conditions at Mecca and Medina in the early seventh century and posits that these small, out-of-the-way settlements were “simply not capable of producing or even comprehending such a rich and sophisticated collection of late ancient religious traditions.”

Furthermore, he draws on findings from literacy and orality studies to conclude that Mecca and Medina did not have the literacy required to fix the Qur’an’s text. It is, he argues, a myth that people in pre-literate societies can commit long oral texts to memory without changing them.

Shoemaker’s preferred explanation for the origin of the Qur’an is that remembrances of Muhammad’s original teachings, first delivered in Mecca and Medina, were passed on orally over more than half a century by his followers.

Later Fabrication

Along the way, they were inevitably altered by normal processes of oral performance and recomposition. It was in regions far from Mecca and Medina that these oral traditions absorbed their many references to late antique religious traditions, before being fixed in written form under Abd al-Malik.

(A tantalising alternative scenario, dismissed by Shoemaker as “too radical,” but entertained by some revisionist scholars, is that the original Qur’anic community was located nowhere near Mecca or Medina.)

Shoemaker’s firm conclusion is that the Qur’an is “a fundamentally composite and composed text”, a much-altered remnant of Muhammad’s original preaching.

Creating the Qur’an is the most comprehensive critical historical account of the Qur’an’s origin to date. It is a milestone in a decades-long struggle to bring the Qur’an out from behind the veil of Islamic orthodoxy into the full light of contemporary scholarship.


Originally published in the Middle East Quarterly Volume 30(4). Republished from Mark Durie’s Substack. Photo by Pok Rie.

We need your help. The continued existence of the Daily Declaration depends on the generosity of readers like you. Donate now. The Daily Declaration is committed to keeping our site free of advertising so we can stay independent and continue to stand for the truth.

Fake news and censorship make the work of the Canberra Declaration and our Christian news site the Daily Declaration more important than ever. Take a stand for family, faith, freedom, life, and truth. Support us as we shine a light in the darkness. Donate now.


  1. Leonie Robson 8 February 2024 at 2:52 pm - Reply

    Further to your story, a great two part YouTube video from Jack Hibbs’ church in the USA, Jay Smith exposed the shaky ground of this religion. He has been doing this for around 30 years. Pfander Films is Jay’s website.
    ‘Dismantling Islam’ is fantastic! Jay’s research goes deep.
    For anyone interested in this subject and perhaps isn’t going to buy the book, it could well be a great resource.
    Thanks Mark.

  2. BB 9 February 2024 at 10:05 am - Reply

    First I’d like to note that the standard academic trope about people not being able to remember long oral traditions word perfect is foolishness, made under the assumption that academics are so much smarter than ordinary people, and that those in pre-literate societies were even more stupid.

    Also, I agree to check out Jay’s material from PFander films.

Leave A Comment

Recent Articles:

Use your voice today to protect

Faith · Family · Freedom · Life



The Daily Declaration is an Australian Christian news site dedicated to providing a voice for Christian values in the public square. Our vision is to see the revitalisation of our Judeo-Christian values for the common good. We are non-profit, independent, crowdfunded, and provide Christian news for a growing audience across Australia, Asia, and the South Pacific. The opinions of our contributors do not necessarily reflect the views of The Daily Declaration. Read More.